Sunday, January 26, 2020

Design Of Perfomance Linked Reward System Business Essay

Design Of Perfomance Linked Reward System Business Essay Performance-related reward system involves rewarding employees according to their performance, or results achieved or contribution to organisations performance as individuals or as a part of a group. It involves a shift of focus from remuneration models based on the worth of jobs and employee skills to their performance. Designing a performance-linked reward system is conditioned by a variety of factors such as the nature of business, type of technology, the attitude of unions and human resource management strategies of the organisation. Therefore, no particular model can be recommended; it has to be custom-tailored. Performance-linked reward systems reduce labour cost, result in increases in real wages and motivate performance. They provide a method of absorbing cost escalation on account of pay increases and thus help in sustaining competitiveness of the organisation. It has been increasingly realised that performance-related pay, if used in isolation, may have little impact on motivation for performance. Appropriate conditions in the organisation have to be created for performance-linked reward systems to be motivationally effective. These conditions, for instance, will involve proper information, consultation, communication mechanisms, training and development of employees, developing proactive attitude and performance-oriented culture, providing non- monetary incentives and evolving an efficient performance management system and so on. Reward system cannot be seen in isolation from compensation management. Compensation management is getting increasingly integrated with business and human resource management strategy. Reward system should, therefore, be considered as an aid to better performance in a performance management system which may be integrated with the overall business plan and strategy. FORMS AND CHOICE OF PERFORMANCE LINKED REWARD SYSTEM There are several types of performance-linked reward schemes. Generally, these are designed to-share with or distribute to employees as individuals, groups or a collectivity productivity gains, profit improvement or financial results of enterprise performance. Such schemes fall into the following broad categories: Schemes based on individual or small group performance including piece rates, traditional merit pay, and sales commission. Incentive schemes which may relate pay to profits on the basis of a pre- determined formula. Bonus schemes based on contribution to productivity and profitability according to a pre-determined formula with gains sometimes distributed among the individual employees on the basis of merit rating. Productivity Bargaining. Employee Stock Options Plan (ESOP). Competency-based pay. 1. Merit Incentive Pay A common method which has long been in existence is pay increase or bonus payment on the basis of performance rating. The merit incentive pay scheme provides another method of recognising and rewarding differential performance. This method could particularly be suitable for office staff. The scheme essentially involves the following steps: a) The determination of result-oriented merit rating procedures, b) The identification of job factors and their relative importance, c) The formulation of a scale of reward, and d) The communication of the basis of monetary reward. Illustratively, job factors of salesman can be identified as (a) sales promotion, (b) realisation of outstandings, and (c) good-will calls, (d) after-sales service and, (e) investigation of complaints. These tasks will differ in their degree of importance. This difference can be recognised by imputing numerical values to different job factors. Hypothetically, let us assign weight values of 5, 3 and 2 respectively to the above tasks. In practice, weight values can be ascertained through job analysis. The actual merit rating score will give the percentage of basic wage or basic wage plus D.A. as incentive bonus. Given a result-oriented merit rating procedure and its objective operation in an organization, it should not be difficult to install a merit incentive pay system. This is not to minimise the difficulties that are usually encountered in operating a -merit rating system. The effectiveness of the performance appraisal system will depend on the soundness of the performance appraisal system. Sometimes merit increments and merit awards are also given in recognition of superior performance on the part of individuals. These are poor substitutes for a system of merit incentive pay because of several shortcomings. Under a system of merit increments, there is no prompt relationship between reward and effort. The quantum of reward at a point of time will be considered inadequate. Additional cost in the form of enhanced allowances is built for the company on permanent basis. Employees continue to benefit from their best performance even if it remains below standard in the future. Employees getting merit awards cannot visualise a proportionate relationship between their performance and reward. The basis of determining the quantum can not be explained to employees who are not given such awards. This may evoke jealously and friction and may thus jeopardise cooperation and goodwill. Incentive Payments Lumpsum payments such as sales commission is another traditional method. Generally, the performance and the payment of lumpsum are linked by a formula. Sales commission, however, does not generally consider other parameters of performance such as realisation of outstandings and selling high profit margin products. Another traditional method of rewarding performance is piece rates. There are several weaknesses in this system. It is not easy to agree with workers on the standard output required. Frequent changes may be needed in the standard output due to technology changes and this may lead to conflict between unions and management. Also factors other than individual performance such as change in work method affect output. Conflicts may also arise between different work groups when one group is dependent on another. There is a potential for conflict when norms have to be revised because of such factors as technology changes. Also, modernisation of technology and automation has rendered piece rates somewhat obsolete. 2. Incentive Schemes Output-based incentive scheme are appropriate where tasks are repetitive and measurable. These involve the following steps: Selecting the objectives Determining the parameters of performance in accordance with the objectives Determining the norms or base values or benchmark values for each parameter Determining performance-reward relationship Fixing the relative importance of the selected parameters, that is, their weightages Designing information and procedure formats Determining the maximum payable incentive amount (incentive opportunity) and , payment period Formulating a communication and review scheme These are, however, not suitable for high technology and service activities, which require information sharing, problem solving and team work. Productivity gain or profit sharing or employee stock options plan (ESOP) may be suitable types for such activities. 3. Group Incentive and Productivity Gain Sharing Under the productivity gain sharing schemes, productivity gains are shared in accordance to an agreed pre-determined formula. Profit sharing gives a share of profit. Sometimes, the quantum of bonus is determined on the basis of profit as well as productivity improvements according to a pre-determined benchmark value for each of them. 4. Productivity Bargaining Productivity bargaining can provide yet another method of improving productivity and linking wage increases- to such improvements. Productivity bargaining, however, does not mean an incentive scheme or wage increases in return for assurances and promises from unions for achieving production targets. This method implies (a) a detailed analysis of the firms operations, (b) the identification of cost reduction possibilities, (c) estimation of savings in cost, and (d) the development of a system o indexing wage increases with cost reductions actually realised over time. The climate for productivity bargaining has never been more favourable than now. It is for managements to take initiative and build this approach in their collective bargaining relationship with Unions. 5. Long-Term Incentive (ESOP) Long-term incentive in the form of employee stock options schemes are operated both to improve long-term incentive and to reduce fixed cost. ESOP envisages employee participation in and ownership of a companys equity. This plan is intended to provide an incentive to the employees to improve the all- round performance and growth of the company and share its prosperity. The plan usually involves allotment of equity shares according to a laid down procedure and subject to governmental regulations, laws and rules. The employees benefit in the form of enhanced market value of his shares and capital gains, which in turn depend on companys and employee performance. Several software and high-tech organisations such as Infosys have conceived and designed such plans. 6. Competency-based Pay The competency is a critical determinant of performance. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in offering monetary incentive for acquiring competencies required for higher performance on the present job or for the next job. Such competency may for instance include values, attitude and behavioural characteristics which influence performance. In designing a performance linked reward scheme, choice of an appropriate scheme should be considered as critical. The choice will be determined by a variety of factors such as the nature of the organisation, the nature of technology, the nature of profits, the nature of markets, the human resource strategy and business objectives. STEPS IN DESIGNING There is a variety of forms of performance-linked schemes. These must be closely adapted to the particular conditions of individual enterprises and the concerned groups of companies. In designing a custom-tailored performance-linked reward scheme, the following steps are important: 1. Custom-Tailored There is little scope for relying on model or standardized schemes. Attempts to impose specific performance-linked reward systems through central regulations generally appear to fail. Frequently the appropriateness of what is being required may appear questionable from the perspective of individual enterprises. Therefore, care must be taken in adapting such schemes to the particularities of individual enterprises. 2. Objectives The objectives of the schemes need to be carefully formulated. Such objectives are needed to guide the selection of performance measures, the specification of bonus calculation formulae and the reaching of common understanding on the size of bonuses that may be expected through the schemes. The potential for performance improvement may vary greatly from one enterprise to another, as well as with the passage of time. Both the short and long run objectives for the scheme should be identified. 3. Selection of Performance Measures The selection of performance measures must be consistent with the scheme objectives; these must encourage those types of behaviour considered important for organizational performance such as increasing output, reducing labour and other costs, improving quality or timeliness of delivery, encouraging co-operation amongst work groups, enhancing adaptability and innovations, etc. In addition, they must not be pursued at the expense of other performance parameters. At the same time, the measures of performance selected should, to a large extent, be under employee control, and not influenced by external influences. Employees will be demotivated if their best efforts are offset by factors they cannot control. The unit, the performance of which is measured, should be small enough to ensure that workers can see some relation between their efforts and rewards. To ensure motivational effectiveness, the measures of performance should also be easily understood by the workers concerned, subject to ready verification if suspicions arise, and be calculable at frequent intervals. 4. Basis Depending on circumstances, performance awards may be determined on the basis of improvements over the previous year, improvements over a base period performance, or the maintenance of a high level of performance. Bonuses which become exceptionally large should be integrated into basic wages in order to avoid distortions in pay structures. Where necessary, it may be advisable to resort to procedures for stabilising bonuses of lengthening the period over which performance is calculated. 5. External Influences To the extent possible, the initial agreement establishing the scheme should specify how target performance levels are to be dealt with when their achievement is affected by external influences such as changes in. production methods, product mix and prices of inputs and outputs. 6. Distribution The rule for the distribution of bonuses amongst workers should be simple and widely supported. It may be based on wage rates or average earnings. Also, to discourage excessive absenteeism, bonus is sometimes varied with the number of hours or days worked. However, distributions in accordance with assessments of individual worker performance by supervisors may be problematic, especially if such assessments lead to significant variation in pay. 7. Equity There should be equal opportunities to earn bonuses, even though the performance measures may vary. In addition, performance targets should be set after a careful scrutiny of the historical behaviour of the measures selected. The quantum of bonus should be significant enough to evoke extra efforts. At the same time performance awards should not be so large as to put at risk a significant part of employee earnings for reasons beyond their control. 8. Safeguards Such schemes should not be substituted for wage increases that otherwise would have been granted or replace fixed wages with variable wages. Performance pay should supplement rather than replace existing wage bargaining arrangements and should not question the need to maintain basic wages at adequate levels. Perhaps of even greater importance in some contexts may be the need to give assurances to existing employees that productivity improvements would not place jobs in jeopardy. 9. Involvement and Communication Such schemes must be perceived as acting in the interest of employees as well as employers. Accordingly such schemes must be implemented in ways that convince employees that they will receive a fair share of the benefits derived from their extra efforts and their jobs will not be threatened. Schemes based on collective performance work more effectively when the scheme objectives and operation are explained in detail to all the employees concerned. The success of schemes depends to a large extent on the amount of effort given by management to consultation at various stages in the planning and design of the scheme, in the process of implementation and monitoring of results. In addition, the schemes have a better chance of success if employees are provided with full opportunities to present their ideas for bringing about improvement. Performance- linked schemes function most effectively when they are accompanied by a formal participative system that facilitates: (a) the transformation of agreed practical suggestions into actual changes in operating methods and procedures; (b) two-way communications at all levels on operating difficulties and general business trends. 10. Union Participation in the Design Performance reward schemes may work most effectively when worker representatives are given full opportunity to participate in their design and administration. Such involvement may facilitate comprehension and acceptance of scheme objectives. Moreover, workers may only fully trust the scheme if it has been elaborated in consultation and agreement with worker representatives and they are subsequently given opportunities to verify that awards is being calculated fairly. Also, the commonality of interests of workers and employers in improved productivity, performance, earnings and equity is likely to be much more apparent where pay systems are developed and elaborated in accordance with rules established through collective bargaining. 11. Review There should be a clear provision for modifications owing to changes in production methods or in prices or inputs or outputs. The effectiveness of all pay systems decays with time and the duration of schemes based on collective measures of performance are particularly short. Accordingly it should be foreseen that the basic parameters of such schemes would undergo regular periodic revisions. Indeed it should be expected from the outset that the collective performance measures and targets would undergo continuing change every few years in the light of the experience. ISSUES AND TRENDS There are many issues and trends occur in linking performance with reward system which are as follows:- 1. Level of Education The level of education of the employees, among other factors, will determine what type of scheme is likely to be easily understood by them and will motivate them. The nature of the business and the operations will also influence. Organisations in low cost manufacturing or which promote innovation, skills and higher performance or which are in service industries may need to consider different forms of performance pay. Their business and human resource management strategy will differ; the form and content as well as objectives of performance pay should be consistent with them. 2. Trade Union The chance of success of performance-linked pay will depend on the tradition of collective bargaining and attitudes of unions. While the negative attitudes hinder its introduction, the positive attitude considerably facilitates it 3. Organisational Culture Performance pay gives better results in organisations characterised by employee involvement and team spirit. A pro-active culture in the organisation is found to be valuable to performance and productivity. 4. Package of Monetary and Non-Monetary Incentives Performance pay is at best an element in the reward management and motivational system. Besides performance pay, it is essential to pay attention simultaneously to such aspects as re-organisation of work process, training, employee involvement and participative decision-making, opportunities to contribute ideas and knowledge, non- monetary recognition, career development and goal setting. 5. Rewarding Good Performance Rewarding good performance may include, among others, such mechanisms as cash awards, appreciation letter and certificates, training in reputed institutions, foreign travel, job enlargement and enriched roles, publicity in newsletters and membership of professional societies, etc. For higher effectiveness of performance-linked pays system, such reward mechanisms should also be used. 6. Performance Pay and Performance Management It is increasingly realised that performance is affected by a variety of factors. These factors, for instance, will include knowledge and skills which are developed through training, work attitudes and intrinsic rewards. These and other factors which affect performance are considered in the wider context of performance management and human resource management with performance pay constituting an element of it. 7. Caveats It is being increasingly realised that The performance pay systems should be designed to promote the kind of performance an organisation needs. It should, therefore, be integrated with human resource management strategy for better performance and growth of the organisation. The performance pay should underpin the organisations main values such as team work, creativity, flexibility and quality. The system should provide an impetus to and support the behaviour expected of the employees. Therefore, it must communicate to employees the type of behaviour to be rewarded and the way in which it will be rewarded. The reward system should be strengthened through re-organisation of work process and enlarged job responsibilities, training, consultation, communication and participatory system. Employees should also be consulted in the formulation of the plan. The criteria for determining performance should be objective, measurable, easily understood and related to what employees can control. The quantum of performance pay should be significant enough to be motivationally effective and its distribution should be equitable. The payment of performance pay should follow the performance as soon as possible and as frequently as possible. The performance level should be achievable; otherwise it will have a demoralising effect. The quantum of pay should be sufficiently flexible to absorb downturn and adequately reward when performance is good; it should also safeguard the minimum remuneration for the value of the job. QUESTIONS Q1. Explain what is performance-linked reward system? Q2. What are the various ways in which performance can be linked to reward system? Q3. In designing a performance-linked reward system, what considerations will you take into account? Q4.List out the various steps involved in designing a performance-linked reward system. Give an example. Q5. Examine the current issues and trends in linking performance with reward system.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Ethical Issues in Marketing

TABLE OF CONTENT S. NO| Particulars| Page no| 1. | EXECUTIVE SUMMARY| 5| 2. | INTRODUCTIONETHICAL ISSUES IN MARKETING| 6| 3. | FAMOUS CASES(UNETHICAL MARKETING PRACTICES)| 9| 4. | PRIMARY STUDY| 12| 5. | REPRESENTATION OF DATA| 13| 6. | INTERPRETETION| 23| 7. | RECCOMENDATION| 24| EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report outlines the concept of ethics in marketing and the famous cases that have emerged in the past regarding unethical marketing practices by businesses. hrough this report we have also tried to find out how sensitive are the common people to the issue of ethics in advertisements and how do they perceive the contents shown in the advertisements nowdays. For this purpose we had conducted a study amonga sample of 50 students of age group 20 to 24 yrs. The research tool used in the study was that of a questionnaire. The study reveals that while most of the people are sensitive to the issue of unethical advertisements, there are also a few who believe that nothing much can be done in t his respect and are a little ignorant towards such issues. They have been and will continue purchasing a brand even after perceiving its advertisement as unethical. Our recommendations to the companies that deal in such practices is that they should thrive to stick to their ethics and moral value and instead should concentrate on providing their customers with such services and products that will add value to them and their lives. MARKETING AND ETHICS Marketing industry is a very broad industry and also one of the core business functions that every business enterprise practices in order to effectively cater to the needs of the customers. arketing leaders thrive to create the look and feel of a brand and to make strategies to engage and inform customers about the same. for this purpose the marketers are today using print ,electronic and social media as their vehicles,as these mediums are pervasive and their powerful forces shape attitudes and behavior in today's world. The reason for this is the tremendous growth and development in the field of   Information and Communication technologies. If yesterday it was television that revolutionized the way advertisements could create a lasting impact on the consumer, then today the internet and phone text messages are doing just the same. also , Rapid economic expansions in countries like China and India have meant that marketers have to quickly respond to the changing socio-economic scenarios. But at the same time these developments have given rise to a number of ethical issues. the globe is indeed becoming a smaller place but the marketers have to bear in mind national, local and cultural sensitivities. Very often, in the hope of capturing a large share , marketers jump in new markets without keeping in mind ethnic and social issues associated to certain areas. marketers today ignore and exploit the social sentiments and factors of the customer groups ,in order to maximise their profits and make fast bucks. this leads them to engage in unethical marketing practices. unethical marketing decisions can be made in following marketing areas: * Supply chain * Advertising * Pricing * Product Supply chain: Only being an ethical company is not sufficient. These days, leading brands are judged by the company they keep. Consumers, investors, business partners, regulators, and media organizations now expect a company and its entire supply chain to be ethical. every company is a part of a supply chain since almost every company buys unfinished inputs provided by many other companies before refining them and passing the finished goods to the consumers. Supply-chain management is a strategic issue. It has an effect on a company's brand and it now concerns managers and board members. Excellent companies are the most ethical in their practices . Excellent companies lead on best practices. A business is said to be having an unethical supply chain if any of the elements of its supply chain ie suppliers/contractors/distributers/sales agents are practising unethical practices like, use of child labour or forced labour, production in sweatshops, violation of basic rights of workers, ignoring health safety and environmental standards. Advertising: Advertising is the most important tool for marketers to promote their products and to make the consumers aware about the same. Advertisements play an important role in inclining and attracting the potential customers towards the product. However nowdays advertisements are under scrutiny for being unethical. Unethical advertisements include misleading advertisements that make false claims, obscene /offensive and indecent ads that hurt religious or social sentiments of people. To sum up, some of the ethical issues in advertising are: Vulgarity/obscenity Misleading advertisements and deception Puffery Stereotype Racial issues Feature of Unethical advertisement on television has been a hot issue in the past days in our country,with the Advertising Standard Council of India receiving 777 complaints regarding 190 ads. it has been discussed later in the project and also a primary study has been conducted regarding the ethics in advertisements in our project. Pricing: Pricing is a very important part of marketing mix and is a decision of strategic nature. a company has to do sufficient amount of analysis to decide on the priceof its product. ompanies can sometime deal in unethical and even illegal pricing. Unethical pricing practices cause customers to believe that the price they pay for some unit of value in a product or service is lower than it really is. This might also include making false price comparisons, providing misleading suggested selling prices, omitting important conditions of the sale, or making very low price offers available only when other items are purchased as well. other unethical pricing stratgies include: price discrimination,price skimming,price fixing. Product: Several product-related issues raise questions about ethics in marketing, most often concerning the quality of products and services provided. Among the most frequently voiced complaints are ones about products that are unsafe, that are of poor quality in construction or content, that do not contain what is promoted, or that go out of style or become obsolete before they actually need replacing. An organization that markets poor-quality or unsafe products is taking the chance that it will develop a reputation for poor products or service. False or greatly exaggerated product or service claims are also deceptive. When packages are intentionally mislabeled as to contents, size, weight, or use information, that constitutes deceptive packaging. Selling hazardous or defective products without disclosing the dangers, failing to perform promised services, and not honoring warranty obligations are also considered deception. Other product related issues include animal testing and manufacturing products that harm the ecology and environment and exploit the already scarce natural resources. FAMOUS CASES LOREAL (UNETHICAL ADVERTISEMENT AND PROMOTION STRATEGY) Loreal is amongst the biggest brand names in personal care and beauty products in the world with a huge line of products and brands under its umbrella ,operating in over 130 countries around the world. However this company has been in news recently ,but for wrong reasons. The company has been time and again been accused of airbrushing its models in order to make them look fairer. The latest addition in its line of controversies is its advertisement that features indian origin actress Freida Pinto. This ad has created controversies because of the fact that the actress appears to be airbrushed as her skin tone has been lightened . Earlier same controversy of airbrushing happenend when singer Beyonce featured in one of Loreal’s ad. The company is seemingly promoting fair skin tones as compared to dark skin tones and is inculcating a sense of insecurity amongst women around the world with regard to their complexion. another case of Loreal’s criticism over fakery in its advertising is of year 2007. the company was condemned for producing ‘misleading' mascara adverts featuring Penelope Cruz. The TV and magazine advertisements claimed that women could have up to 60 per cent longer eyelashes with its Telescopic mascara. But actually it was later revealed that Cruz was wearing false eyelashes in the ads for Telescopic, and the company was forced to include disclaimers during its advertisements making such issues clear. It is for these reasons that the company is viewed by activists as the face of modern consumerism – a company that tested its cosmetics on animals, exploited the sexuality of women, and sold their products by making women feel insecure. Moreover, Nestle owned 26 percent of L'Oreal. Nestle was one of the most boycotted companies in the world for its alleged unethical business practices and aggressive promotion of baby milk in developing countries as discussed above. NIKE AND APPLE INC. (UNETHICAL SUPPLY CHAIN PRACTICE) Nike   has been accused of having a history of using  sweatshops, a sweatshop is a working environment or manufacturing centre where the working environment is considered to be dangerous and difficult because workers can be exposed to hazardous materials, harmful situations, extreme temperatures, and abuse from employers. Sweatshop  workers often work long days, sometimes exceeding 14 hours, and earn pay far below a living age. In 1990s ,Nike’s suppliers in developing countries like indonesia,china and vietnam operated sweatshops in which the workers were made to work in hazardous conditions with minimal wages. this case is an ideal example of unethical supply chain in marketing. a brand as big and famous as Nike has been associated with unethical practise in this particular field of marketing. It was unbelievable and shocking on part of the people who were its loyal customers. The company initially denied all such accusitions and then in the year 2001 a very irresponsible statement was made by Nike director Tom McKean saying that the company cannot control what goes on around the world as they do not own these factories. Another famous company involved in a similar unethical practise is Apple Inc. in the year 2010 ,one of Apple’s suppliers in china was accused of using child labor. since companies are under immense pressure to find lowest cost providers ,they end up dealing with suppliers in developing countries like china ,where such unethical practises are common. o this Steve Jobs (Apple head) said that this was not merely Apple’s problem but a world problem with regard to priorities and a lack of enforcement by local agencies in various deneloping nations. Too many companies are turning blind eye towards their suppliers and end up being associated with unethical business practices. May be this is the reason why Apple ,one of the most imag e conscious and credible company could not escape this trap. NESTLE (UNETHICAL AND IMMORAL PRODUCT ) Nestle a big name in FMCG industry ,has been involved in numerous unethical marketing practices. This company was highly criticed for its disregard for the health of infants shown by its irresponsible marketing of breast milk substitutes. it had been continously breaching the WHO code regulating the marketing of breast milk substitutes. it encouraged bottle feeding and carried on promotional and advertising activities for its baby foods by giving away free samples of baby milk to hospitals . also the company was accused of misinforming mothers and healthworkers during its promotions. It stated that malnourished mothers and mothers of twins and premature babies were unable to breastfeed ,despite health organisations claimimg that threre was no evidence to support such theory. Nestle advertised directly to mothers in over twenty countries such as thailand and south africa. Also the baby foods/milk product were sold in the market without any health warning and even instuctions on the packaging an if present they were in an inappropriate language. Thus company violated the code regulating the marketing of baby milk formulas. According to WHO bottle fed babies are up to ten times more likely to develop gastro intestinal infections. Therefore this company till date is highly criticised for its unethical practice of immoral marketing and promotion of an unethical product. Other accusitions of the company include exploitation of workers at its Brazil chocolate plant including dicrimination of women workers and supporting brutal and repressive regimes MICROSOFT (PRODUCT BUNDLING CASE) Microsoft is a large diversified computer software manufacturer with one of the highest valuations in the world. Microsoft produces the Windows family of operating systems for personal computers and servers. It also produces applications software that run on the Windows family of operating systems, most notably the very successful MS- Office Suite. Almost all Microsoft products are complementary to a member of the Windows family of operating systems for personal computers and servers. United states Vs Microsoft was a civil action filed against Microsoft Corporation by United States Department Of Justice(DOJ). The allegation on Microsoft was that it abused  monopoly  power on Intel-based personal computers. The issue central to the case was that whether Microsoft should bundle its Internet Explorer web browser software with its Microsoft Windows Operating System. Bundling IE with the operating system was considered as a victory of Microsoft in the browsers war as all the Windows users had a copy of IE which had started restricting the sales of the other web browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Opera which were slow to download or had to b purchased at a store. Microsoft said that the bundling of IE with Windows was an innovation and the result of competiton and that now both were a same product. The opposition said that IE should not b bundled with Windows as a separate version of IE was available for Mac OS. They also countered that IE was actually not free with Windows as its development and marketing costs must have increased the price of Windows than what it might actually have been. This had put up a question that whether Microsoft was unethical in bundling its product or was it an innovation. Was it right to increase the sales by almost stopping the sales of others? The strategy which Microsoft adopted was not ethical as the others were suffering because of this and had no choice left before them. Hence what Microsoft did was against the ethics of the marketplace. RESEARCH STUDY (ADVERTISEMENTS AND ETHICS) In this project we have attempted to conduct a research concerning the public's opinion about the level of ethics in advertising. Through this study we want to address the problem of the level of ethics in advertisements nowadays and what is the people’s reaction and how sensitive they are towards the issue of ethics in advertising. For the purpose of this study, questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 50 students and were asked to give their honest opinion regarding this issue. DATA REPRESENTATION Q. Do Advertisement shows an accurate view of reality? Here , 15 people strongly disagree with the situation that advertisement shows exact reality and 10 people are strongly agreeing and 10 are disagreeing with the situation which shows that every individual is having different opinion according to their thinking. Q. Do you think general television advertisements promote materialism? In this out of 50 respondents , 27 respondents think that advertisements promote materialism while other 22 people think they don’t Q. How do you view the level of ethics in general advertising? Q. Which off the following issues in general advertising would you consider being unethical ? A relatively mixed reaction is noticed in this answer. while majority believed that they perceived â€Å"lack of trust† issue in advertisement as unethical. A good lot also believed that advertisements of cigrattes and alcoholic beverages were also unethical. Q. Mention a brand name in front of the product categories mention below ? Q Would you still buy the same brand of shoes if that company is dealing in wrong practices ? For e. g. child labor 43 of sample respondents said that they will not purchase a particular brand having known that the brand deals in unethical practise. Q. Have you ever decided not to buy a product or a service due to an advertisement that you perceived as unethical? 19 respondents said they have not purchased a product having perceived its advertisement as unethical while the majority continued purchasing . Q . Is it fine to use unethical practices to increase profitability of the company? Almost all the respondents believe that it is not right for business houses to engage in unethical practices to maximise their profits. INTERPRETETION AND CONCLUSION The survey done through the distribution of questionnaires revealed following facts: The students interviewed believe that advertisements today have a very unreal appeal to them and do not promote reality while there are a few who also believe that advertisements present a true picture of the real world. The students also believe that advertisements do promote materialism but there was a mixed reaction when asked whether such promotion is ethical. However majority of the people failed to justify their answer and give valid reasons for the same. A huge number of them also think that advertisements do not promote materialism. Also people’s view regarding the level of ethics in the general advertisements was very generalised, for them ethcal level in advertisements is neither too high nor too low. As far as unethical advertisements are concerned, for a majority lot, advertisements which lack trust quotient and are highly exaggerated and misleading are the most unethical. While for others, advertisements promoting cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are also unethical . When asked to name a brand that hit their minds instantaneously corosponding to the products : shoes,deodorant,fainess cream and mobile phone, people had different brand names in their minds as their favourites (most of them being big names). In continuation of this question, respondents were asked if they would still purchase the same brand if they discovered that the brand was associated with unethical practices. To this their response was predictable as most of them refused while a few were not sure. Majority of the respondents have responded that they have decided not to buy a product ,if they have perceived its advertisement as unethical . this shows that a lot of people are sensitive to such issues and have expressed threir dissatisfaction by discontinuing their purchase. While some of the respondents were ignorant and continued purchase. On the other hand most of the respondents believe that it is not right for companies to compromise on their ethical values in order to achieve high profits. RECOMMENDATIONS Considering the high level of unethical issues that are emerging everyday, businesses need to realise that they have to find an alternate to unethical practices. They need to realise that unfair practicse may help them earn profits faster,but the profitability would not last for long . The consumers today are becoming highly aware and such issues cannot escape their knowledge. Thus it is better if companies should strive for using ethical marketing practices . they should Focus on providing good products with lots of benefits, and in this way they will be able to make their marketing honest and irresistible for the customers. They shoiuld make sure there is always an exchange of value between two parties with their marketing efforts. Business houses should keep in mind that business tactics should always be ethical. hey should be persuading a person to buy a product because they really need it, and when the companies are certain that this product will bring value into their lives. Ethical business practice is the ability to truly give somebody the power of choice, and not forcefully loading a product onto the customers, which they know in the back of their minds they will never have any use for. QUESTIONNAIRE NAME:- AGE:- Q1) Advertisement shows an accurate view of reality? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree ) No opinion Q2) Do you think general television advertisements promote materialism? a) yes b) No c) Can’t say Q3) if yes, do you perceive it as ethical or unethical and why? Q4) How do you view the level of ethics in general advertising? a) Very high b) High c) Average d) low e) Very low Q5) Which off the following issues in general advertising would you consider being unethical ? a) creation of irrational desires , and needs b) comparative advertisement c) advertisement with lack of truth d) puffery ( increased value or attributes) e) alcoholic beverage advertisement ) cigarette and tobacco advertisement Q6) Mention a brand name in front of the product categories mention below ? a) shoes b) fairness cream c) deodrant d) mobile phone Q7) Would you still buy the same brand of shoes if that company is dealing in wrong practices ? for e. g child labour a) yes b) no c) cant say Q8) Have you ever decided not to buy a product or a service due to an advertisement that you perceived as unethical? a) yes b) no Q 9) Is it fine to use unethical practices to increase profitability of the company ? a) Yes b) No c) Can’t say

Friday, January 10, 2020

Importance of Co-Curricular Activities in Schools Essay

Recognizing the importance of providing educational activities that enrich and broaden student experiences as an integral part of the curriculum as well as beyond the normal academic day, the School Committee supports the development of co-curricular and extracurricular programs in accordance with the policies established by the School Department. Co-curricular programs are defined as those activities that enhance and enrich the regular curriculum during the normal school day. Extracurricular programs are defined as those activities that broaden the educational experience which usually take place beyond the normal school day. Students who desire to participate on athletic teams shall do so on a volunteer basis with the understanding that it is a privilege and not a right to be a member of a school team. All students are invited to participate, but it is recognized that some students may not be capable of competing at the varsity level. At non-varsity levels, participation may be restricted based on safety and space restrictions. It shall be the policy of the School Department to compete in interscholastic athletics sanctioned by the Rhode Island Interscholastic League and to abide by that organization’s rules and regulations. Activities should be designed to meet the needs of and to stimulate interests expressed by students and should cover a broad range of abilities. There shall be equal opportunities for all students to participate in such programs. The expenses of voluntary activities may be covered by the students, the school, school-related organizations, and/or non-school groups. Elementary Level Recognizing the positive aspects of co-curricular programs that enrich and enhance the regular elementary school program, the School Committee supports the development of such activities in all areas of the approved curriculum. Middle School Level Recognizing the special needs and interests of students at the middle school level, the School Committee supports the development of both co-curricular activities as part of the regular school program and extracurricular activities based on the mutual interests and talents of students, teachers, and community volunteers. The Middle School Administration and the Director of Athletics and Student Activities shall be responsible for coordination of co-curricular and extracurricular programs at this level. Recognizing the importance of extracurricular as well as co-curricular activities in the total educational experience of high school students, the School Committee supports the development of programs that meet the needs and interests of a significant number of students, who come together to form organizations to pursue activities that are consistent with the educational goals of the School Department. Procedures for organizing such groups should be established and supervised by the High School Administration and the Director of Athletics and Student Activities. Recognizing that the variety and specialization of interests may preclude funding of all activities, the School Committee agrees to provide supporting funds and funds for advisors of approved activities insofar as these funds are determined by the School Committee to be available. The School Committee shall allow approved organizations to raise funds so that their programs shall be self-supporting. Procedures for fundraising should be established and supervised by the High School Administration and the Director of Athletics and Student Activities. No student shall be excluded from an activity because of an inability to contribute funds to support the program. The School Committee may sanction interscholastic programs supported in full by individuals and/or organizations under the following guidelines: †¢ The sport meets the â€Å"Criteria for Adding Interscholastic Sports† established by High School Administration. †¢ The funds identified by the Director of Athletics and Student Activities as necessary to support initial startup and annual operations must be on deposit with the School Department prior to scheduling competition. The School Committee and Administration shall have complete care and control of all activities associated with the particular sport. †¢ The use of students in fundraising activities shall be approved by the High School Administration and the Director of Athletics and Student Activities. †¢ Should the sport no longer be offered, all surplus funds shall be transferred to the High School Athletic General Account. http://www. cumberlandschools. org/website/Interscholastic%20Sports. pdf The term curriculum refers to the programme of study in various academic subjects (e. Maths, English, History, Science, Spanish) followed by students at various levels of education. The school or college’s teaching staff are employed to teach this curriculum, and students are periodically assessed (e. g. by exams and term papers) in their progress in each curriculum subject. As they grow older, students’ achievements in their curriculum subjects are seen as important in helping them get into a good university or college, and to find a good job when they leave education. Depending on which country you are in, schools and colleges may also be held accountable for their students’ results in the curriculum subjects. The academic curriculum has never been all that schools and colleges offer to their students. Often a range of other classes, clubs and activities is available to students, sometimes in lessons but more often in the lunch break or after school. These are referred to as the co-curriculum, or as extra-curricular activities, and they are mostly voluntary for students. Examples would include sports, musical activities, debate, Model United Nations, community service, religious study groups, charitable fundraising, Young Enterprise projects, military cadet activities, drama, science clubs, and hobbies such as gardening, crafts, cookery and dance. Because they are not examined in the same way that the academic curriculum is, and because most of them take place outside lessons, such activities have less status in education than the main curriculum. However, they are often held to be very important to the wider education of young men and women. This topic examines whether the co-curriculum should be given more importance in schools and colleges – maybe by giving academic credits for co-curricular activities, A distinction could be made between co-curricular and extra-curricular activities, although most of the time they are used to mean the same thing. The co-curriculum is sometimes seen as a non-academic, but formal part of education, with timetabled and compulsory sessions for all students – each student may get to choose what co-curricular activity they wish to pursue, but they are required to follow at least one. Staff are required to run co-curricular activities as part of their contract, and the co-curriculum is generally well-funded. This kind of co-curriculum can be seen in Singapore’s education system and also in private schools (especially boarding schools) in countries like the UK, the USA and Australia. By contrast, extra-curricular activities are less well organised and funded, being entirely voluntary for students and taking place outside the school timetable. School staff may be involved in running extra-curricular activities, but there is no obligation on them to do so and they do not normally receive extra pay for it. Clubs and societies in many UK and American state schools fit this definition, as do non-academic activities in most universities and colleges throughout the world. The arguments which follow can be used to fit either or both definitions.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen - 834 Words

Mr. Krogstad, a former employee of Torvald is the leading antagonist in A Doll House. He clearly has an agenda and a lust for power. Krogstad’s lust for power gives the reader a sense of subtle rage because Krogstad only wants what’s best for him and his family but he exploits Nora for his own gain. Krogstad advances the plot by controlling Nora through a loan, while illuminating both main characters, and reinforcing the themes of confusion and lost love. Krogstad influences the plot in a very influential way from the very beginning when Nora and Krogstad both meet. He tries to use Nora as a puppet in order to save his job at the bank, Krogstad asks Nora to â€Å"influence on my behalf (837).† He is clearly trying to persuade Nora in order to keep his â€Å"subordinate position in the bank (837).† Nora then tries to play this down by informing Krogstad that she has no influence and that no one is trying to take his position at the bank. Krogstad lashes ou t at Nora in order to order to get a reaction. To understand this aggression the reader needs to understand male psychology. â€Å"According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is an adaptation designed by natural selection to regulate conflicts of interest.† (Physical Strength). Krogstad’s anger lead him to the decision to lash out at Nora because Krogstad believed that Nora had the power to control Torvald. Krogstad’s anger influenced Nora because Nora was frightened of Krogstad. The reader eventually finds out why. â€Å"I’m notShow MoreRelatedDoll’s House by Henrik Ibsen1126 Words   |  4 PagesHenrik Ibsen wrote the book, Doll’s House, in the late 1870s about the life of the common woman in Norway during the 1870s. The book gave society an inside of look of the life women in general. Woman during this time were oppressed and men were contemptuous towards women. Women that opposed their husband were considered mentally insan e and sent to a mental institution. The book is about a domesticated woman named Nora. Nora lives in a house with her husband and their three kids. Nora main job toRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1725 Words   |  7 Pagessuffrage, took place from 1848-1920. In the drama A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen, readers are presented with what seems to be the perfect little American dream home. Anti-feminist values are presented immediately in the first scenes of the play and carry out until the end. The play was written in 1879, a time when the feminist movement was just starting to take shape and become well known. The drama A Doll’s House has feminist themes that indicate Henrik Ibsen to be a supporter of the feminist movement throughRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1492 Words   |  6 PagesA Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen was written in 1879 during the Victorian Era. The story is written as a play to be performed on stage. 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Throughout the play, Ibsen focuses on Nora’s characterization and experiences and thus this leads the reader to perceive her as the protagonistRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1556 Words   |  7 Pagesprevalent in a variety of literary selections. This paper will focus on animal imagery in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House by using the reader response strategy. In the play A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen, animal imagery is used in the development of the main character Nora. It is also later found that the animal imagery is a critical part in understanding who Nora is and how other characters perceive her. Ibsen uses creative animal imagery to develop Noras character throughout the play. The animalRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1829 Words   |  7 Pages Henrik Ibsen, writer of his most famed play A Doll’s House. Ibsen emphasizes on small-town life in this play. A Doll’s House takes place in the 1880s in Europe/Norway and based on a married couple, Torvald Nora, who are considered to be middle class. The main character Nora in Ibsen’s play, A Doll’s House, seems to give this false installment of her identity. She is both unpredictable and childlike. The entire first and second act she spends giving this hidden subtext that she is unreliableRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen868 Words   |  3 Pagesmoney is considered to hold the most power. In the case of the household, the person who holds the most power is the person who handles the money, and in our man-centric world, it is usually the man who holds both money and power. In Henrik Ibsens play A Doll’s House, the theme of money is used to establish power roles between the characters of the play, and how the theme contributes to typical gender roles in the 19th century. A womans duty in the 19th century was to exhibit â€Å"piety, purity, submissivenessRead MoreA Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay961 Words   |  4 PagesIn Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, pointedly captures the reality of the Victorian Era within the play. Nora Helmer, the protagonist of the story, represents the typical women in society during that era. The audience’s first impression of Nora is a money obsessed, childish, obedient house wife to her husband, Torvald Helmer. However, as the play progresses one can see that Nora is far from being that typical ideal trophy wife, she is an impulsive liar who goes against society’s norm to be whomRead More A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Essay842 Words   |  4 PagesA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen â€Å"A dolls house† was written by Henrik Ibsen and produced by famous actors during the time of the 1800’s; in fact it was the year of 1879 to be precise. It was around this time that many different Social, cultural and historical moments were changing through time, leaving the end result to change not only one country but had an effect on most of the world. For this section of the work I will be carefully discussing with you the issues of; * Social events Read More A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay1111 Words   |  5 PagesA Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen The play â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Henrik Ibsen is about a wife that is hiding a big secret from her overprotective husband. The play takes place on Christmas Eve till the day after Christmas. Nora Helmer and Torvald Helmer have been married for 8 years, yet Nora is hiding something from Torvald that she thinks would ruin everything if he found out. It opens up with Nora coming home and decorating the house for Christmas and making preparations. They have 3 children: